The term ‘Comedy of Menace’ was first coined by David Campton who used the phrase as a subtitle of his four short plays The Lunatic View, published in 1957. However, in Harold Pinter’s hand, the concept ‘comedy of menace’ becomes highly symbolic which refers to a particular style of dark comedy found in his works and those influenced by him. It refers to plays or dramatic works that combine elements of humor, absurdity, and a pervasive sense of threat or menace. In comedy of menace, the characters often engage in seemingly banal or ordinary situations that gradually reveal underlying tensions, power struggles, and a sense of impending danger.
In Comedy of Menace, the underlying tension and menace are often embedded in seemingly ordinary situations, conversations, or interactions. The threat may be implicit, lurking beneath the surface, or gradually revealed as the narrative unfolds. The comedic elements in these plays serve to heighten the tension and create a sense of unease or discomfort for the audience.
Characteristics of Comedy of Menace:
- Subtextual conflict: The true conflict and threat lie beneath the surface of seemingly ordinary conversations and interactions.
- Absurdity and humor: The plays often include humorous dialogue and absurd situations that heighten the tension and create a sense of unease.
- Power struggles: There is often a power dynamic at play, with characters vying for control or dominance over one another.
- Language and pauses: Pinter’s use of pauses, silences, and ambiguous or elliptical dialogue is a distinct feature of comedy of menace, creating a sense of uncertainty and menace.
- Psychological depth: The plays delve into the characters’ psychological states, exploring their anxieties, fears, and desires.
Examples of Comedy of Menace:
- “The Birthday Party” by Harold Pinter (1957) – This play revolves around the character of Stanley, whose peaceful birthday celebration turns into a menacing and surreal event when two mysterious men arrive.
- “The Homecoming” by Harold Pinter (1965) – This play follows the return of a long-absent son to his family home, where power struggles, manipulation, and a tense atmosphere gradually escalate.
- “The Dumb Waiter” by Harold Pinter (1957) – In this one-act play, two hitmen wait in a basement for their next assignment, engaging in seemingly trivial conversations that gradually reveal a sense of menace and impending violence.
- “The Beauty Queen of Leenane” by Martin McDonagh (1996) – While not written by Pinter, this play shares elements of comedy of menace. It explores the dysfunctional relationship between a manipulative mother and her lonely daughter, filled with dark humor and underlying threats.