Anandavardhana was a renowned Indian literary theorist and scholar who lived during the 9th century CE. He is most celebrated for his pioneering contributions to the field of literary criticism and aesthetics in India. His works have had a significant influence on the development of literary theory in Sanskrit and other Indian languages. Anandavardhana’s most famous work is:
Dhvanyaloka (The Light of Suggestion):
Dhvanyaloka is Anandavardhana’s magnum opus and a seminal work in the field of Indian poetics and aesthetics. This text introduces the concept of “dhvani,” which means “suggestion” or “resonance.” Dhvanyaloka provides a detailed analysis of this concept and its application in understanding the nature of poetry and literature.
Nature of Dhvani:
Anandavardhana asserts that the true essence of poetry lies in dhvani, which is a subtle and suggestive element in poetry. Unlike the overt meaning (vachya) of words, dhvani is a deeper, more emotional or aesthetic meaning that is evoked in the reader’s mind. It’s the power of suggestion that leads to an aesthetic experience.
Three Types of Suggestion (Dhvani):
Anandavardhana identifies three types of dhvani:
Alamkara Dhvani: This type of suggestion arises from the use of poetic figures of speech and literary ornaments.
Rasa Dhvani: Rasa refers to the emotional or aesthetic mood generated by a poem, and this type of suggestion is related to the evocation of various rasas (emotions) in the reader.
Vyanjana Dhvani: This is the most important type of dhvani. It is the subtle suggestion that goes beyond the literal meaning of words. It evokes emotion, rasa, and ultimately leads to aesthetic pleasure.
Vyanjana Dhvani in Detail:
Anandavardhana emphasizes vyanjana dhvani as the core of poetic suggestion. It occurs when a word or phrase suggests something beyond its literal meaning, creating a sense of wonder or aesthetic delight.
He classifies vyanjana dhvani into two categories: Aviddha and Vidagdha.
Aviddha Vyanjana: This is straightforward suggestion, where the intended meaning is directly suggested by the poet.
Vidagdha Vyanjana: In this, the suggestion is veiled or indirect, leaving room for the reader’s imagination and interpretation. This adds depth to the poetic experience.
Dhvani vs. Vakrokti:
Anandavardhana differentiates dhvani from vakrokti, another key concept in Indian poetics. Vakrokti refers to figurative expression, and it is a subset of dhvani. While vakrokti deals with figurative language, dhvani deals with the suggestion and resonance that arises from the entire poem or a specific arrangement of words.
Rasa in Dhvani:
Anandavardhana argues that dhvani is closely related to the experience of rasa (emotional aesthetic flavor) in poetry. The suggestion evoked by dhvani is what leads to the emotional and aesthetic responses in the reader, making poetry a potent source of rasa.
Application and Influence:
The ideas presented in “Dhvanyaloka” have had a profound impact on Indian literary criticism and aesthetics. They influenced later poets and scholars, such as Abhinavagupta, and became integral to the understanding and analysis of classical Sanskrit poetry.
“Dhvanyaloka” is a foundational text in Indian poetics, and Anandavardhana’s concept of dhvani has been instrumental in shaping the appreciation and analysis of poetry, not only in Sanskrit but also in other Indian languages. It provides a nuanced framework for understanding the depth and beauty of literary expression and the emotional impact it can have on readers.